Location-based Control and Management System for Safety and Emergency Rescuing Services using LTE D2D Technology

Newton Fund/British Council Institutional Links Programme


This collaboration is for the development of a location-based system that provides safety support to mobile users and assists emergency services in the event of disasters. The proposed system will support monitoring, alerts and rescue services by utilising the latest device-to-device and relay technologies working over the long-term evolution networks. Our targets are emergency situations in Turkey and its region during/after disasters such as earthquakes, mining disasters, and avalanches where unsafe areas are often found. Other safety issues will also be addressed, such as the dangers in unsafe areas at remote campsites, snowy walking trails and landslides, where conventional communication means of cellular networks may only be partially available. A prototype demonstration system will be built to test the alerting services. The project’s outcomes will provide significant social and economic benefits to the general public, government, wireless industry, and health/safety sectors.


  1. Using D2D technology, a new communication method will be designed to tackle safety and emergency issues where the traditional methods of communications (e.g., conventional mobile device-base station communications links) would not be available.
  2. Utilizing the latest technology of relay communication, a communication interface will be built to update location information of the users that are out of range of the control centre, e.g., the victims within the affected disaster areas.
  3. An autonomous intelligent software and database at the control centre (base station) that is able to analyse critical location data and convert it into safety/emergency messages will be developed.
  4. Finally, a prototype system which can offer safety services that operates automatically by ways of monitoring, collecting location information and providing quick and relevant safety or emergency actions will be implemented and validated.

Key Deliverables

The outputs of project are expected to be:

  1. a service to provide safety alert to users who are approaching the unsafe areas;
  1. a service to provide quickly deployed rescue actions to the disaster sites,
  2. a process that includes position monitoring, safety warning and emergency alerting, and
  3. a prototype, including a suite of software and database for critical location analysis and emergency messaging, which is a system demonstrating the following: LTE D2D interface between 2 LTE modem handsets; relaying functionality for forwarding messages between the central controller and an out-of-coverage LTE modem handset; and high layer protocol and application software for exchanging safety related information. In particular, this includes a centralised software and database package for managing location information, a protocol for message forwarding and an app in mobile phones.

We anticipate 15-20 international IEEE/IET conference/journal papers to be published during the project.


Work Packages (WPs) & Milestones

WP1 (D2D/Relay interface)

Design D2D interface between a modem LTE handset and a test mobile equipment to acquire location information of the user that is out of range from the control centre. Design relay communication between the control centre and the out-of-range mobile user via an in-range user acting as a relay.

Tasks in this WP include:

  • T1) (Months 1-5 or M1-5) – Investigate relaying schemes (amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, two-way relay) in the new context of delivery of location and safety/emergency data only;
  • T2) (M3-10) – Develop beacon signal, proximity device discovery, and tracking algorithms on LTE D2D mobile devices; and
  • T3) (M8-16) – Design multiple access algorithms when a commercial LTE mobile device acts as a relay solely for emergency/safety purpose (short messages with very low latency)

WP2 (Suite of software, database and protocol)

Develop a protocol and autonomous intelligent software/database at the control centre to monitor, collect and analyse location information of mobile users via the physical D2D/relay links and then automatically dispatch relevant safety/emergency messages to the users.

Tasks include:

  • T4) (M1-8) – Develop autonomous intelligent software and location database at the control centre that is able to analyse critical location data and convert it into safety/emergency messages;
  • T5) (M4-11) – Develop a protocol for new type of communication between control centre and relay for safety/emergency communication; and
  • T6) (M10-16) – Develop an app at the LTE D2D-enabled mobile device to automatically update location information when engaged in D2D communication with another mobile device within proximity

WP3 (Final integration, validation and testing)

Tasks include:

  • T7) (M15-24) – Integrate, validate and test all designs in the two above WPs as the whole system and as a demo model; and
  • T8) (M23-24) – Writing up

Project Teams       

Teams in the collaboration are as follows:

  1. MDX: Middlesex Uni. (Dr Huan Nguyen (PI), Dr Tuan A. Le, Prof. Mehmet Karamanoglu, Dr Zheng Chu (Research Assistant), Dr Mohsin Raza (Research Assistant), Mr Kamran Ali (PhD Candidate), Mr Hardik Rohitkumar (MSc student) and Mr Noel Saldanha (BSc Student)
  2. METU: Middle East Technical Uni. (Prof. Adnan Yazici (PI), Dr Enver Ever, Dr. Fadi Al-Turjman, Dr Selim Temizer, Dr. Bakkiam David Deebak (Research Assistant) and Dr Hardi)
  3. KCL: Kings College London (Prof. Arumugam Nallanathan and Mr Ali Al-Talabani)
  4. ARX: Aeroflex/Cobham Wireless (Dr Duc To, Dr Li-Ke Huang)


Project Implementation & Progress – Updating:

A – First 6 months:


  • Sep. 2016: Project starts and Dr Zheng Chu was employed by the MDx team, working as a full-time Research Assistant (RA).
  • Oct. 2016: Kamran attended the ACOSIS’17 conference and presented research results on a scalable D2D architecture design for Public Safety Network
  • Nov. 2016: Dr Deebak joined the METU team as an RA.
  • Feb. 2017: Mr Noel Saldanha has joined the project’s MDX team, working on the FPGA implementation and app design in WP2.
  • Mar. 2017: The PIs from the UK team (Dr. Huan Nguyen) and from the Turkish team (Prof. Adnan Yazici) attended the Wireless Days conference in Porto to present the project’s outcome (energy harvesting solution for D2D communications that can be potentially applied in the disaster scenarios) [2]. The two PIs have also discussed details of the project’s progress and plan the next steps.
  • May 2017: After a number of Skype meetings, a face-to-face meeting at METU-NCC between two UK and Turkish teams is held in early May 2017. Two teams’ members (Dr Huan Nguyen, Dr Tuan Le, Prof. Mehmet Karamanoglu, and Dr Enver Ever) will also be attending the ICT’17 and IWNPD’17 conferences in Cyprus to present other project’s outcomes: designs of D2D cooperative communications [3] and of D2D multi-hop relaying services [4] towards disaster communication and management systems.
  • June 2017: Hardi joined the METU team as an RA
  • Xxxx
  • Xxxx
  • Jan 2018: Mohsin joined the MDX team as an RA

Conference papers:

  1. K. Ali, H. X. Nguyen, P. Shah, and Q.-T. Vien, “Energy efficient and scalable D2D architecture design for public safety network,” in Proc. 2016 International Conference on Advanced Communication Systems and Information Security (ACOSIS’16), Marrakesh, Morocco, Oct. 2016.
  2. T. A. Le, Q.-T. Vien, T. A. Le, H. X. Nguyen, and R. Schober, “Robust optimization with probabilistic constraints for power-efficient and secure SWIPT,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM 2016), USA, Dec. 2016.
  3. Z. Chu, H. X. Nguyen, T. A. Le, M. Karamanoglu, D. To, E. Ever, F. Al-Turjman, and A. Yazici, “Game theory based secure wireless powered D2D communications with cooperative jamming,” in Proc. 2017 Wireless Days Conference, Porto, Portugal, Mar. 2017.
  4. Z. Chu, H. X. Nguyen, T. A. Le, M. Karamanoglu, D. To, E. Ever, F. Al-Turjman, and A. Yazici, “D2D cooperative communications for disaster management,” in Proc. 24th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT’17), Limassol, Cyprus, May 2017.
  5. K. Ali, H. X. Nguyen, P. Shah, Q.-T. Vien, and E. Ever, “D2D multi-hop relaying services towards disaster communication system,” in Proc. IEEE International Workshop on 5G Networks for Public Safety and Disaster Management (IWNDP’17), Limassol, Cyprus, May 2017.
  6. Z. Chu, T. Le, D. To, and H. X. Nguyen, “Sum Throughput Optimization for Wireless Powered Sensor Networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Singapore, Dec. 2017.
  7. Z. Chu, T. Le, H. X. Nguyen, M. Karamanoglu, Z. Zhu, A. Nallanathan, E. Ever, and A. Yazici, “Robust Design for MISO SWIPT System with Artificial Noise and Cooperative Jamming,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Singapore, Dec. 2017.
  8. Z. Chu, T. Le, H. X. Nguyen, A.Nallanathan, and M. Karamanoglu, “Robust Sum Secrecy Rate Optimization for MIMO Two-way Full Duplex Systems,” in Proc. VTC Fall, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 2017, pp. 1-5.

Journal papers:

  1. Ali, H. X. Nguyen, Q.-T. Vien, P. Shah, and Z. Chu, “Disaster Management Using D2D Communication With Power Transfer and Clustering Techniques,” IEEE Access, 2018, accepted.
  2. Al-Turjman, Y. K. Ever, E. Ever, H. X. Nguyen, D. B. David, “Seamless Key Agreement Framework for Mobile-Sink in IoT Based Cloud-Centric Secured Public Safety Sensor Networks,” IEEE Access, 2018, accepted
  3. Chu, H. Nguyen, T. Le, M. Karamanoglu, E. Ever, and A. Yazici, “Secure Wireless Powered and Cooperative Jamming D2D Communications,” IEEE Trans. Green Commun. Netw., 2018, accepted
  4. Chu, H. Nguyen, and G. Caire, “Game Theory-Based Resource Allocation for Secure WPCN Multiantenna Multicasting Systems,” IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security, 2018, accepted
  5. Chu, T. Le, H. X. Nguyen, A. Nallanathan, and M. Karamanoglu, “A Stackelberg-Game Approach for Disaster Recovery Communications Utilizing Cooperative D2D,” IEEE Access, 2018, accepted.
  6. A. Le, Q.-T. Vien, H. X. Nguyen, D. W. K. Ng, and R. Schober, “Robust chance-constrained optimization for power-efficient and secure SWIPT systems,” IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 333-346, Sep. 2017.

I) WP1:

The MDX team has been leading this WP and has worked extensively on the tasks T1, T2 and T3.

  • Zheng, Tuan and Kamran are working mainly on this WP.

(updated on 12.04.2017)

There have been several publications from the work in this WP:

II) WP2:

The METU team has been working on this while the MDX and ARX teams are working on a prototype (using FPGA) implementing a D2D based warning messaging system

  • Feb. 2016: Three RedBoard FPGAs were purchased, a Dell workstation was allocated
  • Mar. 2016: One XILINX FMC to EZ-USB FX3 board, one Kit Dev EZ-USB FX3 USB3.0 purchased; three Diligent Interface Development Tools Pmod-USB-UART purchased
  • Deebak and Enver are working on the network/routing protocols
  • Noel and Duc are focusing on the FPGA design and implementation

Design, Work Plan, and Results:

Stage 1: A simple messaging system with FPGA/USRP/Ras. Pi

We use a simple system with FPGA/USRP/Ras. Pi (acting as a mobile user or a relay) who is able to send a simple message (such as “Warning! You are entering a dangerous zone/situation!”) to the control center (a computer) when it is triggered by certain condition (such as dangerous situation). The trigger condition can be manually set in our program (we can make a button to switch it on and off for trigger).

The goal for this stage is just to prove that once an alert is triggered at the device, it is able to send back to the control centre and take the corresponding instruction from the centre. Actions include: form a message, pack it into a packet, send it through an USB connection.

The steps should be:

  1. The FPGA/USRP/Ras.Pi board: even triggered (button pressed) -> create a message -> pack into a packet -> send the packet to centre through USB connection
  2. The centre (PC): receive the packet -> unpack the packet -> create another message in responding -> pack the message into a packet -> send the packet to the FPGA board through USB connection
  3. The FPGA/USRP/Ras.Pi board: receive the response packet -> unpack it -> read the message -> set warning (flash a LED).

The computer playing the role as control centre needs to have an user interface: it shows the monitor of events and response status.

In reality, a device just simply updates the centre the device’s location. Giving warning is the job of the centre as the map of dangerous places is stored at the centre database, which could be updated dynamically.

In Stage 1, forming packet is necessary as we may need to support many devices. Packaging also means to notify the receiver who is the sender. We may want to use a simple addressing mechanism at this level.